This is part 3 of 3.
Part 1: The Functional Organization
Part 2: The Leadership Model
Deciding how to organize areas of expertise to best enable collaboration and rapid decision-making has been an important responsibility of the CEO.
The adjustments Tim Cook has implemented in recent years include dividing the hardware function into hardware engineering and hardware technologies; adding artificial intelligence and machine learning as a functional area; and moving the human interface out of software to merge it with industrial design, creating an integrated design function. Based on the HBR article, “How Apple Is Organized for Innovation” by Joel M. Podolny and Morten T. Hansen: