This is part 2 of 3.

Part 1: The Functional Organization

Part 3: Leadership at Scale

Ever since Steve Jobs implemented the functional organization, Apple’s managers at every level, from the senior vice president on down, have been expected to possess three key leadership characteristics: deep expertise that allows them to meaningfully engage in all the work being done within their individual functions; immersion in the details of those functions; and a willingness to collaboratively debate other functions during collective decision-making.

When managers have these attributes, decisions are made in a coordinated fashion by the people most qualified to make them. Based on the HBR article, “How Apple Is Organized for Innovation” by Joel M. Podolny and Morten T. Hansen:…